Grounding Ethics

I disagree with the claim that ethics requires an ultimate ground in a deity in order to be valid and motivational to us as moral agents.  Ethics can be grounded in axiomatic principles of (1) rationality, (2) impartiality, and (3) universality; it can be grounded in considerations of welfare and actions that maximize benefits while minimizing harms; it can be grounded in genuine care for others (e.g. an ethic of care); and it can be grounded in understandings of interdependence (seeing that all beings are bound up together and what we do affects us all indirectly, therefore we should act to minimize harms and negative impacts and maximize benefits for oneself and for all).

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